Lean Condition Procedure for Utilization of Silica from Rice Husk as Zeolite Precursor
Rice husk is rich in Si that makes it applicable as Si source for zeolite synthesis. However, the conventional method to use rice husk as a zeolite precursor has some drawbacks, which are: Si recovery method that involves burning and causing air pollution and carbon resources loss; and the use of severe conditions and sophisticated apparatuses which are not suitable for rural application where rice husk is mainly produced. In this paper, a method to prepare rice husk as zeolite Si source via a non-combustion process was proposed. Furthermore, its utilization as a zeolite precursor via moderate condition was also investigated. Si was recovered directly from rice husk using a sodium hydroxide solution. Si was successfully recovered from rice husk, and the optimum condition for recovery was found to be 1 N of NaOH and 16 hours of contact time. The application of the recovered Si for zeolite precursor at moderate condition was successful, and it was able to produce a product rich in zeolite P and zeolite X depending on the condition. Among zeolites synthesized in this experiment, the sample prepared by treatment time of 15 hours showed the highest cation exchange capacity, which makes it a promising material to be used as an ion-exchange agent.
Carmona, V.B., Oliveira, R.M., Silva, W.T.L., Mattoso, L.H.C., & Marconcini, J.M. (2013). Nanosilica from rice husk: Extraction and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products Vol. 43, 291– 296.
Ding, L.L., Zou, B., Shen, L., Zhao, C., Wang, Z., Guo, Y., Wang, X., & Liu, Y. (2014). A simple route for consecutive production of activated carbon and liquid compound fertilizer from rice husk. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects Vol. 446, 90–96.
Dey, K.P., Ghosh., S., & Naskar, M.K. (2012). A facile synthesis of ZSM-11 zeolite particles using rice husk ash as silica source. Materials Letters Vol. 87, 87-89.
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. (2017). Rice Market Monitor, Vol XX:3.
Hikichi, Y., Hukuo, K., & Miwa, T. (1985). Low Temperature Synthesis of Faujasite-Type Zeolite from Cristobalite Rock. Journal of the Ceramic Association, Japan, Vol. 93:1083, 717-722.
Mohamed, R.M., Mkalid, I.A., & Barakat, M.A. (2012). Rice husk ash as a renewable source for the production of zeolite NaY and its characterization. Arabian Journal of Chemistry.
Prasetyoko, D., Ramli, Z., Endud, S., Hamdan, H., & Sulikowski, B. (2006). Conversion of rice husk ash to zeolite beta. Waste Management, Vol. 26, 1173-1179
Purnomo, C.W., Salim, C., & Hinode, H. (2012). Synthesis of pure Na–X and Na–A zeolite from bagasse fly ash. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 162, 6-13.
Santasnachok C., Kurniawan W., & Hinode H. (2015). The use of synthesized zeolites from power plant rice husk ash obtained from Thailand as adsorbent for cadmium contamination removal from zinc mining. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 3, 2115-2126.
Soltani, N., A. Bahrami, M.I. Pech-Canul, Gonzalez., L.A. (2015). Review on the physicochemical treatments of rice husk for production of advanced materials. Chemical Engineer-ing Journal 264 899-935.
Singh, B. (2018). Rice husk ash in Waste and Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Concrete. Woodhead Publishing.
United States Department of Agriculture (2019). Indonesia Rice: Area Reduced due to Corn Expansion. Commodity Intelligence Report.