An Application of Blended Palm Oil Waste in Brick Production
Cement brick is an essential construction component, which uses cement as the primary binder. The cement industry was identified as the major contributor to carbon dioxide emission, which is a greenhouse gas. The application of agro-industrial waste as partial cement replacement can reduce the negative impacts on the environment. In this study, the palm oil wastes, namely Palm Oil Clinker Powder (POCP) and Palm Oil Boiler Ash (POBA), were used as partial cement replacement. A total of 60 specimens were prepared with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% cement replacement by POCP and POBA. The physical and mechanical properties of bricks, such as density, water absorption, voids, and compressive strength, were investigated. The results show that the brick with 20% CP and BA could be used as a severe weathering brick.
Ahmmad, R., Alengaram, U.J., Jumaat, M.Z., Sulong, N.H.R., Yusuf, M.O., & Rehman, M.A. (2017). Feasibility study on the use of high volume palm oil clinker waste in environmental friendly lightweight concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 135, 94–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.12.098
Ahmmad, R., Jumaat, M.Z., Alengaram, U.J., Bahri, S., Rehman, M.A., & Hashim, H.Bin. (2016). Performance evaluation of palm oil clinker as coarse aggregate in high strength lightweight concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 566–574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.08.043
ASTM International (2017). ASTM C62-17, Standard Specification for Building Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale), 1-4.
ASTM International (2015). ASTM C1437-15, Standard Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic Cement Mortar, 1-4.
Boey, P.L., Ganesan, S., Lim, S.X., Lim, S.L., Maniam, G.P., & Khairuddean, M. (2011). Utilization of BA (boiler ash) as catalyst for transesterification of palm olein. Energy, 36, 5791–5796. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.09.005
British European Standard (2013). BS EN 12620-13, Aggregates for concrete. Pp. 1–60.
Bukit, N., Ginting, E.M., Pardede, I.S., Frida, E., & Bukit, B.F. (2018). Mechanical properties of composite thermoplastic hdpe / natural rubber and palm oil boiler ash as a filler. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1120, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1120/1/012003
Flatt, R.J., Roussel, N., & Cheeseman, C.R. (2012). Concrete: An eco material that needs to be improved. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 32(11), 2787–2798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2011.11.012
Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka, D. (2015). Microscopic observations of self-healing products in calcareous fly ash mortars. Microscopy Research and Technique, 78(1), 22-29. https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22440
Kajaste, R., & Hurme, M. (2016). Cement industry greenhouse gas emissions - Management options and abatement cost. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 4041–4052. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.055
Kanadasan, J., & Razak, H.A. (2015). Utilization of palm oil clinker as cement replacement material. Materials, 8(12), 8817–8838. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8125494
Kanadasan, J., Razak, H.A., & Subramaniam, V. (2018). Properties of high flowable mortar containing high volume palm oil clinker (POC) fine for eco-friendly construction. Journal of Cleaner Production, 170, 1244–1259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.068
Karim, M.R., Hashim, H., & Abdul Razak, H. (2016). Thermal activation effect on palm oil clinker properties and their influence on strength development in cement mortar. Construction and Building Materials, 125, 670–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.10.002
Karim, M.R., Hashim, H., Abdul Razak, H., &Yusoff, S. (2017). Characterization of palm oil clinker powder for utilization in cement-based applications. Construction and Building Materials, 135, 21–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.12.158
Kow, K.W., Yi Mun, L., & Yusoff, R. (2015). Silica gel synthesized from oil palm boiler ash. Journal of Mineral Metal and Material Engineering, 1, 14–18.
Lau, S. Y., Phuan, S. L., Danquah, M. K., & Acquah, C. (2019). Sustainable palm oil refining using pelletized and surface-modified oil palm boiler ash (OPBA) biosorbent. Journal of Cleaner Production, 230, 527–535. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.04.390
Ling, J. H., Lim, Y. T., Leong, W. K., & Sia, H. T. (2021). Effects of Adding Silica Fume and Empty Fruit Bunch to the Mix of Cement Brick. Indonesian Journal of Computing, Engineering, and Design, 3(1), 19-30. https://doi.org/10.35806/ijoced.v3i1.141
Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Malaysia. (2014). A Roadmap of Emissions Intensity Reduction in Malaysia.
Nayaka, R.R., Alengaram, U.J., Jumaat, M.Z., Yusoff, S.B., & Alnahhal, M.F. (2018). High volume cement replacement by environmental friendly industrial by-product palm oil clinker powder in cement-lime masonry mortar. Journal of Cleaner Production, 190, 272–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.291
Nayaka, R.R., Alengaram, U.J., Jumaat, M.Z., Yusoff, S., & Sumesh, M. (2018). Influence of palm oil clinker powder on the fresh and mechanical properties of masonry mortars Influence of palm oil clinker powder on the fresh and mechanical properties of masonry mortars. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 431(8). https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/431/8/082002
Neville, A. M., & Brooks, J. J. (1987). Concrete Technology (2nd ed.). United Kingdom: Pearson. https://doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2015.0201
Payá, J., Borrachero, M.V., Monzó, J., Peris-Mora, E., & Amahjour, F. (2001). Enhanced conductivity measurement techniques for evaluation of fly ash pozzolanic activity. Ce-ment and Concrete Research, 31, 41–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00434-8
Roslan, A., Mohamed Yusof, M.K.T., Sharipudin, S.S., Michael, Z., & SharulAzhar, I.I. (2020). Feasibility study of palm boiler ash as cement and sand replacement in concrete. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 15(4), 2361–2378.
Yahya, Z., Abdullah, M.M.A.B., Hussin, K., Ismail, K.N., Razak, R.A., & Sandu, A.V. (2015). Effect of solids-to-liquids, Na2SiO3-to-NaOH and curing temperature on the palm oil boiler ash (Si + Ca) geopolymerisation system. Materials, 8, 2227–2242. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8052227