Methods to Increase Microalgae Carbohydrates for Bioethanol Production

  • Esam Abu Baker Ali School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Idris Engineering Development of Power Generation and New Renewable Energy, Engineering and Technology Division, PT PLN (Persero), Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Irianto Irianto Department General Education, Faculty of Resilience, Rabdan Academy, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
  • Muhammad Zulkarnain Fakulti Teknologi Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Melaka, Malaysia
  • Syah Alam Department of Electrical Enginnering, Universitas Trisakti, West Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Ayu Amanah Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Bung Karno, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • La Ode Muhammad Firman Center of Excellence in New and Renewable Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Pancasila, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Donny Mustika Engineering Development of Power Generation and New Renewable Energy, Engineering and Technology Division, PT PLN (Persero), Jakarta, Indonesia


Compared to traditional lignocellulose biomass, microalgae contain little or no lignin. Traditionally, bioethanol production from microalgae undergoes three major steps: (i) pretreatment; (ii) polysaccharides hydrolysis into simple sugars; and (iii) sugar conversion into bioethanol by fermentation. Microalgae convert sunlight, water, and CO2 into algal biomass. Diatoms, green algae, bluegreen algae, and golden algae are four main classes of microalgae, whereas the two main species of algae are filamentous and phytoplankton algae. Microalgae convert solar energy efficiently, producing an enormous number of various metabolites. Many studies have been conducted to convert microalgae into various biofuels, such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen, and biogas. However, compared to biodiesel, bioethanol production from algae through
fermentation consumes less energy with its simplified process. Considering these advantages, a number of potential applications for microalgae have been proposed and developed. Despite the promising of bioethanol from microalgae, it still has a number of obstacles, such as the low fermentable carbohydrate content of microalgae. This article intends to discuss the methods to increase microalgae carbohydrates thoroughly. To solve this problem, several nutritional starvations/limitations, like nitrogen and phosphorous starvation, are currently being considered in this paper.


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How to Cite
ALI, Esam Abu Baker et al. Methods to Increase Microalgae Carbohydrates for Bioethanol Production. Indonesian Journal of Computing, Engineering and Design (IJoCED), [S.l.], v. 4, n. 2, p. 35-50, oct. 2022. ISSN 2656-8179. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 06 feb. 2023. doi: