• Nneoma Benita Amos Department of Business Administration and Marketing, School of Management Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Edafe Bawa Dogo School of Management Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Johnson A. Egwakhe Professor, Dean of School of Management Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9997-7839
  • Jones E. Umukoro School of Management Sciences, Business Administration & Marketing Department, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6682-8757


The study investigated operational efficiency through operational resilience of private universities in Southwest Nigeria during COVID-19. Private universities were established to impact knowledge, enabled unhindered learning and timely turn-out of graduates since their inception in 1999. However, private universities’ operational efficiency was challenged and truncated by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, which motivated the thrust to determine their operational resilience along with their efficiency. Primary data were obtained from academic lecturers in eight selected private universities in Southwest Nigeria. The questionnaire used was adapted, and the validity and reliability were established. Findings showed that operational resilience significantly affected the operational efficiency of the universities. Therefore, institutions should leverage technology to enhance response and fast-track learning to drive their operational efficiency in the face of disruptions and pandemic.

Author Biographies

Nneoma Benita Amos, Department of Business Administration and Marketing, School of Management Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Department of Business Administration and Marketing 


Johnson A. Egwakhe, Professor, Dean of School of Management Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Dean, School of Management Sciences,

 Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Jones E. Umukoro, School of Management Sciences, Business Administration & Marketing Department, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

School of Management Sciences,

Business Administration & Marketing Department,

 Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria


Abbas, K. D. (2017). Knowledge sharing and dissemination among academics in Nigerian universities: Patterns and trends. Journal of Balkan Libraries Union, 5(1), 21-27.
Amekudzi-Kennedy, A., Labi, S., Woodall, B., Chester, M., Singh, P. (2020). Reflections on Pandemics, Civil Infrastructure and Sustainable Development: Five Lessons from COVID-19 through the Lens of Transportation. Preprints, 2020040047
Agba, M. S. & Ocheni, S. I. (2017). An empirical study of the effects of work environment (electric power supply) on job performance of academic staff in Nigerian public and private universities. Higher Education of Social Science, 12(2), 11-20.
Aguirre, B., Kendra, J., Dynes, R., & Connel, R. (2005). Institutional resilience and disaster planning for new hazards: Insights from Hospitals. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 2(2), 1-20.
Alabi, A. T., Murlala, A. T., & Lawal, A. A. (2017). Lecturers’ work stress and job performance in Kwara State Colleges of Education, Nigeria. Journal of Vocational Technology, 4(1), 1-7.
Anderson, N., Potočnik, K., & Zhou, J. (2014). Innovation and creativity in organizations: A state-of-the-science review, prospective commentary, and guiding framework. Journal of management, 40(5), 1297-1333.
Association of African Universities (2020). Covid-19. https://www.aau.org/covid-19/
Awasthi, A. (2020). Disaster recovery planning-foundation pillars. International Journal of Science and Research, 9(1), 1360-1362.
Blomberg, A., Kallio, T., & Pohjanpää, H. (2018). Antecedents of organisational creativity: Drivers, barriers or both? Journal of Innovation Management, 5(1), 78-104.
Bolaji, F. (2020). CampusBiz Journal. https://campusbiz.com.ng
Bruton, R. (2018). Wellbeing Policy Statement and Framework for Practice 2018–2023. Department of Education and Skills, Marlborough Street, Dublin 1, Ireland.
Bukoye, R. O. (2017). Re-orientation of Nigerians towards mental health: Its counseling implications. European Scientific Journal, 13(17), 302-316.
Cascio, W. F. & Montealegre, R. (2016). How Technology is Changing Work and Organizations. The Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3, 349-375.
Coates, G., Alharbi, M., Li, C., Ahilan, S., & Wright, N. (2020). Evaluating the operational resilience of small and medium-sized enterprises to flooding using a computational modelling and simulation approach: a case study of the 2007 flood in Tewkesbury. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 378(2168), 20190210.
Collins, A. & Halverson, R. (2018). Rethinking education in the age of technology: The digital revolution and schooling in America. Teachers College Press.
Coovert, M. D. & Thompson, L. F. (2014). Toward a synergistic relationship between psychology and technology. The Psychology of Workplace Technology, 1-17.
Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolph, J., Malkawi, B., Glowatz, M., Burton, R., Lagmi, P., & Lam, S. (2020). COVID-19: 20 countries’ higher education intra-period digital pedagogy responses. Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching, 3(1), 1-20.
CSSE (2020). Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
Dahie, A. M., Mohamed (Aligees), A. A., & Khalif, H. B. (2017). Examining factors affecting the quality of work life of lecturers: Case study from university of Somalia in Mogadishu, Somalia. International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development, 4(4), 1117-1124.
Daykin, N., Gray, K., McCree, M., & Willis, J. (2017). Creative and credible evaluation for arts, health and well-being: Opportunities and challenges of co-production. Arts & Health, 9(2), 123-138.
Devdutt, J. & Mehrotra, S. (2018). Emotions at work and mental health: Emerging directions. International Journal of Community Medicine & Public Health, 5(4), 1233-1238.
Economic Confidential (2017). Universities rankings-2017. http://www.economicconfidential.com
Egwakhe, A. J. & Osabuohien, E.S. (2009). Educational Background and Youth Criminality in Nigeria. International Forum, 12(1), 65-79.
Egwakhe, A. J., & Umukoro, J. E. (2019). Workers wellbeing and creative person: Organisational culture effect. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 8(9), 9225-9235.
Ekechukwu, R. O. & Isiguzo, B. C. (2016). Stress and its associated health problems among nonacademic staff in Nigerian universities: A case study of university of Port Harcourt. European Journal of Psychological Research, 3(1), 16-27.
Eluka, J. C. & Nwonu, C. O. (2015). A critical review of the effect of working conditions on employee performance: Evidence from Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 5(5), 1-11.
Essuman, D., Boso, N., & Annan, J. (2020). Operational resilience, disruption, and efficiency: Conceptual and empirical analyses. International Journal of Production Economics, 229, 107762.
Foster, E. & Smith, C. (2015). Integrating resilience planning into university campus planning. Planning for Higher Education Journal, 44(1), 1-11.
García-Sánchez, E., García-Morales, V. J., & Martín-Rojas, R. (2018). Influence of technological assets on organisational performance through absorptive capacity, organisational innovation and internal labour flexibility. Sustainability, 10(1), 1-25.
Henriksen, D., Henderson, M., Creely, E., Ceretkova, S., Černochová, M., Sendova, E., Sointu, E. T., & Tienken, C. H. (2018). Creativity and technology in education: An international perspective. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 18(2), 35-65.
Hussain, S. T., Abbas, J., Lei, S., Haider, M. J., & Akram, T. (2017). Transactional leadership and organisational creativity: Examining the mediating role of knowledge sharing behavior. Cogent Business & Management, 4, 1-11.
Ikhwana, A., Mauluddin, Y., Hayat, E. J., Taptajani, D. S., & Suandi, M. I. (2019). Supply chain support factors for brown sugar business optimality using analytical hierarchy process. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1402, 022037.
Iqbal, F., Nisar, A., & Ali, A. (2018). The moderating effect of job aid on the relationship between work environment and employees’ productivity in oil and gas development company limited (OGDCL) of Pakistan, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(6), 630-651.
Iruonagbe, C. T., Imhonopi, D., & Egharevba, M. E. (2015). Higher education in Nigeria and the emergence of private universities. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(2), 49-64.
Ishola, A. (2017). Workplace safety management as correlates of wellbeing among factory workers in Oluyole industrial estate, Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. African Journal of Social Work, 7(2), 45-51.
Jaja, J. M. (2013). Higher education in Nigeria: Its gain, its burden. Global Journal of Human Social Science Linguistics & Education, 13(14), 21-29.
Junior Cycle Wellbeing Guidelines (2017). Wellbeing, Assessment and Reporting. https://www.jct.ie/wellbeing/assessment_and_reporting
Kanematsu, H. & Barry, D. M. (2016). The importance of STEM for modern education. In: STEM and ICT Education in Intelligent Environments. Springer.
Kasule, G. W. (2015). Impact of work environment on academic staff job performance: Case of a Uganda University. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 4(4), 95-103.
Kinman, G. & Wray, S. (2018). Presenteeism in academic employees—occupational and individual factors. Occupational Medicine, 68(1), 46-50.
Kotter, J. P. & Heskett, J. L. (2011). Corporate culture and performance. Free Press.
Krejcie, R. V. & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(1), 607-610.
Kunz, T. P., & Crones, S. F. (2015). The impact of practitioner business rules on the optimality of a static retail revenue management system. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, 14(3), 198-210.
La, V. P., Pham, P. H., Ho, M. T., Nguyen, M. H., Nguyen, K. L. P., Vuong, T., Nguyen, H. T., Tran, T., Khuc, Q., Ho, M., & Vuong, Q. H. (2020). Policy response: Social media and science journalism for the sustainability of the public health system amid the COVID-19 outbreak: The Vietnam Lessons. Sustainability, 12(1), 293.
Makhbul, Z. M., & Khairuddin, S. M. H. S. (2013). Stress among Malaysian academics: A conceptual study. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(1), 196.
Mbazor, D. N., Ajayi, M. A., & Ige, V. O. (2018). Staff satisfaction with workplace facilities in the school of environmental technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigerian. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology (NIJEST), 2(1), 69-77.
Miller, H. E. & Engemann, K. J. (2019). Business continuity management in data center environments. The International Journal of Information Technologies and Systems Approach, 12(1), 1-25.
Mishra, P. & Mehta, R. (2017). What we educators get wrong about 21st-century learning: Results of a survey. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 33(1), 6-19.
Muflihah, Y. & Subriadi, A. P. (2018). A Basic Element of IT Business Continuity Plan: Systematic Review. Jurnal Informatika, 12(1), 17-23.
Mullen, P. E. (2010). Mental Health and the Law. McGraw-Hills Publishers.
Musah, M., Kong, Y., & Mensah, I. A. (2019). Exploring the link between operational efficiency and firms’ financial performance: An empirical evidence from the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE). International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, 3(4), 841-848.
National Universities Commission (2019). Top universities ranking in Nigeria. https://www.nigerianinfopedia.com/nuc-ranking-top-100-universities-in-nigeria
Nigeria Center for Disease Control [NCDC] (2020). First case of Corona Virus Disease Confirmed in Nigeria. https://ncdc.gov.ng/news/227/first-case-of-corona-virus-disease-confirmed-in-nigeria
Nigeria Center for Disease Control [NCDC] (2020). https://ncdc.gov.ng/
Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Canada (2019). Business Continuity Planning. https://www.osfi-bsif.gc.ca
Olofin, B. B., & Aniede, P. I. (2016). Problem and prospect e-learning in Nigerian universities. International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE), 3(2), 320-327.
Oludeyi, O. S. (2015). A review of literature on work environment and work commitment: implication for future research in citadels of learning. Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(2), 32-46.
Oludeyi, O. S., Momoh, A. M., & Akinsanya, A. O. (2018). Campus environmental factors and job commitment of staff in State universities in Ogun South-West Nigeria. Human Social Sciences, 7(1), 42-61.
Osaat, D. S. & Ekechukwu, R. (2017). Managing workload of academic staff for job effectiveness in Nigerian universities: A study of University of Port Harcourt in South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), 4(12), 102-108.
Page, T. & Thorsteinsson, G. (2017). The impact of conventional school education on students’ creativity. I-Manager’s Journal on School Educational Technology, 13(1), 12.
Păunescu, C., Popescu, M.C., & Blid, L. (2018). Business impact analysis for business continuity: Evidence from Romanian enterprises on critical functions. Management & Marketing, 13(3), 1035-1050.
Wahab, B. (2020, March 19). FG orders closure of all schools in Nigeria because of Coronavirus. Pulse. https://www.pulse.ng/news/local/coronavirus-fg-orders-closure-of-all-schools-in-nigeria/lg5h0w6
Pricewaterhouse Coopers PWC (2019). Operational Resilience. https://www.pwc.ch/en/publications/2019/operational-resilience_final_web-singles.pdf
Quendler, E. (2017). Organizational resilience: building business value in a changing world. Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, 10(2), 534- 553.
Reich, J., Buttimer, C. J., Fang, A., Hillaire, G., Hirsch, K., Larke, L., Littenberg-Tobias, J., Moussapour, R., Napier, A., Thompson, M., & Slama, R. (2020, April 2). Remote Learning Guidance From State Education Agencies During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A First Look. https://tsl.mit.edu/research/remote-learning-guidance-from-state-education-agencies-during-the-covid-19-pandemic/
Runco, M. A. (2014). Creativity: Theories and Themes: Research, Development, and Practice. Elsevier.
Sahebjamnia, N., Torabi, S. A., & Mansouri, S. A. (2014). Integrated business continuity and disaster recovery planning: Towards organizational resiliency. European Journal of Operational Research, 242(1), 261-273.
Salau, O. P. (2017). Work environments and retention outcomes of academic staff of state universities in Southern Nigeria. Journal of Management Research, 5(1), 50-68.
Sarmiento, J. P., Sarmiento, C., Hoberman, G., Chabba, M., & Sandoval, V. (2019). Small and medium enterprises in the Americas, effect of disaster experience on readiness capabilities, AD-ministe, 35(1), 117-136.
Shimomitsu, T., Haratani, T., & Nakamura, K. (2000). The Final Development of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire Mainly used for Assessment of the Individuals. The Ministry of Labor sponsored grant for the prevention of work-related illness, pp. 126-164.
Soufi, R. H., Torabi, S. A., & Sahebjamnia, N. (2019). Developing a novel quantitative framework for business continuity planning. International Journal of Production Research, 57(3), 779-800.
Steenkamp, N. & Roberts, R. (2018). Does workload and institutional pressure on accounting educators affect academia at Australian universities? Accounting and Finance, 10, 1-36.
Steiner, N. (2018). Acceptable latency of data that will not be recovered. Management in Health, 22(2), 18-20.
Sydnor, S., Niehnm, L., Lee, Y., Marshal, M., & Schrank, H. (2017). Analysis of post-disaster damage and disruptive impacts on the operating status of small businesses after Hurricane Katrina. Nat Hazards, 85, 1637-1663.
Umeh, K. & Matthew, O. (2017). Asuu begins indefinite strike. The Guardian Newspaper. https://guardian.ng/news/asuu-begins-indefinite-strike/
Umukoro, J. E., & Egwakhe, A. J. (2019). Flexible wellbeing and smart-head. International Journal of Research Science & Management, 6(12), 103-118.
Usoro, A. A. (2018). Occupational stress and the job effectiveness of Federal university lecturers in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: Administration and Management, 18(3), 23-28.
Usoro, A. A., & Etuk, G. R. (2016). Workload related stress and job effectiveness of university lecturers in cross River and Akwa Ibom States, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies, 3(1), 34-41.
Weissman, J., Russell, D., Jay, M., Beasley, J. M., Malaspina, D., & Pegus, C. (2017). Disparities in health care utilization and functional limitations among adults with serious psychological distress, 2006–2014. Psychiatric Services, 68(7), 653-659.
World Health Organisation. (2016). World Health Statistics 2016: Monitoring Health for the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs. https://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/2016/en/
World Health Organization (2020). Infection prevention and control during health care when COVID-19 is suspected https://www.who.int/publications-detail/infection-prevention-and-control-during-health-care-when-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-is-suspected-20200125
Zhao, G. (2012). Levinas and the Mission of Education. Educational Theory, 62(6), 659-675.
How to Cite
AMOS, Nneoma Benita et al. OPERATIONAL RESILIENCE AND EFFICIENCY OF PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA: THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC EXPERIENCE. Journal of Business And Entrepreneurship, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 1, oct. 2021. ISSN 2685-6255. Available at: <https://ojs.sampoernauniversity.ac.id/index.php/JOBE/article/view/203>. Date accessed: 21 oct. 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.46273/job&e.v9i2.203.