ENTREPRENEURSHIP INTENTIONS OF SFAX UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

  • Salim Morched PhD in Management Sciences, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
  • Abdallah Haj Brahim PhD in Management Sciences, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
  • Anis Jarboui Professor of Finance, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Sfax, Tunisia

Abstract

In Tunisia, the job that thousands of university graduates aim to do is their first choice, not to initiate their own business. This research aims to examine the entrepreneurial mentality of Sfax University students and their objectives of starting a new business by studying the disadvantages preventing them from becoming independent. First, collecting key data through self-prepared questionnaires is done for the evaluation of the explanatory factor’s role, such as attitudes, senses of control, social norms, and students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship, and how each dimension affects entrepreneurs’ intentions. Then, the use of a multiple regression model based on Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is effective to analyze the data. After receiving entrepreneurship training at the University of Sfax, this theoretical framework was verified by 320 students from different disciplines. The results show that personal attitudes and perceived behavioral control are the explanation of entrepreneurial intentions.

References

Ajzen I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.
Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Prentice Hall.
Aliouat, B. & Ben, C. A. (2009). Les déterminants environnementaux de l’intention de créer une start-up en TIC : cas des ingénieurs tunisiens, 6èmeCongrès de l'Académie de l’Entrepreneuriat, Sophia Antipolis.
Arminda, M., Do Paço, F., Ferreira, J. M., Raposo, M., Rodrigues, R. G. & Dinis, A. (2011). Behavior and entrepreneurship intention: Empirical findings about secondary students. J. Int. Entrep., 9, 20-38.
Audia, P. G., Locke, E. A., & Smith, K. G. (2000). Le paradoxe du succès: un archivage et une étude en laboratoire de la persistance stratégique suite à un changement environnemental radical. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 837-853.
Autio, E., Keeley, R. H., Klofsten, M., Parker, G. G. C. & Hay, M. (2001). Entrepreneurial Intent among Students in Scandinavia and in the USA. Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies, 2(2), 145-160.
Badulescu, A., Badulescu, D., Bac, D., & Sipos-Gug, S. (2014). Attitudes and intentions of business master students towards sustainable tourism and entrepreneurship. Amfiteatru Economic Journal, 16(Special No. 8), 1110-1124.
Bae, T. J., Qian, S., Miao, C., & Fiet, J. O. (2014). The Relationship Between Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Meta-Analytic Review. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(2), 217-254.
Bandura A. (1982). Self-efficacity mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122-147.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
Bird, B. (1988). Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas: The Case for Intention. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 442-453.
Boissin J. P., Chaulet B., & Émin S. (2009). Les déterminants de créer une entreprise chez les étudiants: une approche empirique. Management, 12(1), 28-51.
Boissin J. P., Émin S., & Herbert, J. I. (2007). Les étudiants et la création d’entreprise: une étude comparée France/États-Unis, XIVème conférence de l’AIMS, Montréal.
Bönte, W., & Jarosch, M. (2011). Gender differences in competitiveness, risk tolerance, and other personality traits: do they contribute to the gender gap in entrepreneurship? (No. 2011-012). Schumpeter discussion papers.
Boudabbous S. (2011). L’intention entrepreneuriale des jeunes diplômés. Revue Libanaise de Gestion et d’Economie, 6, 1-20.
Card, D. & Krueger, A. B. (2000). Minimum wages and employment: a case study of the fast-food industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania: reply. American Economic Review, 90(5), 1397-1420.
Cardon, M. S., Gregoire, D. A., Stevens, C. E., & Patel, P. C. (2013). Measuring entrepreneurial passion: Conceptual foundations and scale validation. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(3), 373-396.
Davidsson, P. (1995). Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intentions. Paper prepared for the Rent IX Workshop, Piacenza, 23-24 November 1995.
Dinis, A., do Paco, A., Ferreira, J., Raposo, M., & Rodrigues, R. G. (2013). Psychological characteristics and entrepreneurial intentions among secondary students. Education & Training, 55(8/9), 763-780.
Emin S. (2006). La création d’entreprise: Une perspective attractive pour les chercheurs publics. Finance Contrôle Stratégie, 9(3), 39-65.
Entrialgo, M., Fernández, E., & Vázquez, C. J. (2000). Characteristics of managers as determinants of entrepreneurial orientation: some Spanish evidence. Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies, 1(2), 187-205.
Esfandiar, K., Sharifi-Tehrani, M., Pratt, S., & Altinay, L. (2019). Understanding entrepreneurial intentions: A developed integrated structural model approach. Journal of Business Research, 94, 172-182.
Fayolle A. & Gailly B. (2009). Evaluation d’une formation en entrepreneuriat : prédispositions et impact sur l’intention d’entreprendre. Management, 12(3), 175-203.
Fayolle, A. (2008). Entrepreneurship education at a crossroads: Towards a more mature teaching field. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 16(04), 325-337.
Fayolle, A., Liñán, F., & Moriano, J. A. (2014). Beyond entrepreneurial intentions: values and motivations in entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 10(4), 679-689.
Ferreira, J. J., Raposo, M. L., Rodrigues, R. G., Dinis, A., & do Paço, A. (2012). A model of entrepreneurial intention: An application of the psychological and behavioral approaches. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19(3), 424-440.
Filser, M., Kraus, S., Roig-Tierno, N., Kailer, N., & Fischer, U. (2019). Entrepreneurship as Catalyst for Sustainable Development: Opening the Black Box. Sustainability, 11, 4503.
Guerrero, M., Rialp, J. & Urbano, D. (2008). The impact of desirability and feasibility on entrepreneurial intentions: A structural equation model. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(1), 35-50.
Gürol, Y. & Atsan, N. (2006). Entrepreneurial characteristics amongst university students: Some insights for entrepreneurship education and training in Turkey. Education & Training, 48(1), 25-38.
Hair Jr., J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106-121.
Hajer, H. & Habib, A. (2013). Factors of entrepreneurial intention of the public civil servant: empirical evidence in case of Tunisia. International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research, 4(1), 673-687.
Hiatt, S. R., Sine, W. D., & Tolbert, P. S. (2009). From Pabst to Pepsi: The deinstitutionalization of social practices and the creation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54(4), 635-667.
Hindle, K. & Rushworth, S. (2002). Sensis GEM Australie, 2002. Université de Swinburne.
Hmieleski, K. M., & Corbett, A. C. (2006).Proclivity for improvisation as a predictor of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(1), 45-63.
Jain, S. K. & Chaudhary, H. (2017). Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on entrepreneurial intentions of potential entrepreneurs in India. In Entrepreneurship Education (pp. 289-303). Springer.
Karimi, P., Kloshani, M., & Bakhshizadeh, A. (2012). A comparative study on emotional intelligence and cognitive between successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs. Management Science Letters, 2(6), 2071-2076.
Khan, M. M., Ahmed, I., Nawaz, M. M., & Ramzan, M. (2011). Impact of personality traits on entrepreneurial intentions of university students. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business, 1(4), 51-57.
Kiviluoto, N., Brännback, M., & Carsrud, A. (2011). Are firm growth and performance the same or different concepts in empirical entrepreneurship studies? An analysis of the dependent and independent variables.In Entrepreneurship, growth and economic development. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Kolvereid, L. (1996). Prediction of Employment Status Choice Intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 21(1), 47-58.
Kolvereid, L. & Isaksen, E. (2006). Business Start up and subsequent entry into self-employment. Journal of Business Venturing, 21, 866-885.
Krueger, N. F. & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial Potential and Potential Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(3), 91-104.
Krueger N. F. & Carsrud, A. L. (1993). Entrepreneurial Intentions: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 5(4), 315-330.
Krueger, N. F. (2017). Entrepreneurial intentions are dead: Long live entrepreneurial intentions. In Revisiting the entrepreneurial mind (pp. 13-34). Springer.
Lee L., Wong P. K., Foo M. D., & Leung A. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Business Venturing, 26, 124-136.
Liñán, F. (2004). Intention-based models of entrepreneurship education. PiccollaImpresa/Small Business, 3(1), 11-35.
Liñán, F. & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross–cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593-617.
Liu, X., Lin, C., Zhao, G. & Zhao, D (2019). Research on the Effects of Entrepreneurial Education and Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy on College Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 869.
Maes, J., Leroy, H., & Sels, L. (2014). Gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions: A TPB multi-group analysis at factor and indicator level. European Management Journal, 32(5), 784-794.
Mazzarol, T., Volery, T., Doss, N., & Thein, V. (1999). Factors influencing small business start‐ups: a comparison with previous research. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 5(2), 48-63.
McGee, E. J., Peterson, M., Muller, S. L. & Sequeira, J. M. (2009). Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy: refining the measure. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(4), 965-988.
Miller, B. K., Bell, J. D., Palmer, M., & Gonzalez, A. (2009). Predictors of entrepreneurial intentions: a quasi-experiment comparing students enrolled in introductory management and entrepreneurship classes. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 21(2), 39-62.
Moriano, J. A., Gorgievski, M., Laguna, M., Stephan, U., & Zarafshani, K. (2012). A cross-cultural approach to understanding entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Career Development, 39(2), 162-185.
Nazri, M. A., Aroosha, H., & Omar, N. A. (2016). Examination of Factors Affecting Youths’ Entrepreneurial Intention: A Cross-Sectional Study. Information Management and Business Review, 8(5), 14-24.
Ng, T. W., Sorensen, K. L., & Eby, L. T. (2006). Locus of control at work: a meta‐analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 27(8), 1057-1087.
Owoseni, O. O. & Akambi, P. A. (2010). Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Theoretical Framework. Journal of Management and Corporate Governance, 2(4), 132-148.
Shook C. L. & Bratianu C. (2010). Entrepreneurial Intent in a transitional economy: an application of the theory of planned behavior to Romanian students. Int. Entrep. Manag. J., 6, 231-247.
Taha, K. A. S., Ramlan, S. N., & Noor, I. M. (2017). The factors affecting entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Technopreneurship, 7(2), 189-202.
Thompson, E. R. (2009). Individual Entrepreneurial Intent: Construct clarification and development of an Internationally Reliable Metric. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 3393), 669-694.
Tuan, N. A., Ha, D. T. H., & Thao, V. T. B. (2019). Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intentions among Youths in Vietnam. Children and Youth Services Review, 99(1-2), 186-193.
Veciana, J. M., Aponte, M. & Urbano, D. (2005). University Students’ Attitudes Towards Entrepreneurship: A Two Countries Comparison. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1, 165-182.
Vodă, A. I. & Florea, N. (2019). Impact of personality traits and entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of business and engineering students. Sustainability, 11(4), 1192.
Zhu, F., Chen, R., & Li, M. (2011, January). The divergent effects of autonomy and passion on persistence in new venture creation.In Academy of management proceedings (Vol. 2011, No. 1, pp. 1-6). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.
Zigarmi, D., Galloway, F. J., & Roberts, T. P. (2018). Work locus of control, motivational regulation, employee work passion, and work intentions: An empirical investigation of an appraisal model. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(1), 231-256.
Published
2021-11-18
How to Cite
MORCHED, Salim; HAJ BRAHIM, Abdallah; JARBOUI, Anis. ENTREPRENEURSHIP INTENTIONS OF SFAX UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. Journal of Business And Entrepreneurship, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. 15-25, nov. 2021. ISSN 2685-6255. Available at: <https://ojs.sampoernauniversity.ac.id/index.php/JOBE/article/view/220>. Date accessed: 28 nov. 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.46273/job&e.v10i1.220.